Some phones are able to take still picture or video by using the camera. The pictures and/or video then can be sent wirelessly, or sometimes associated with phone book entries and used for picture ID on incoming calls. The phones listed with the “camera” feature on this site have a built-in camera. Some other phones do not include a camera, but are designed to work with camera. Camera quality is affected by many factors, including resolution and lens focus type (fixed or auto focus).
    Fixed focus, auto focus and optical image stabilization cameras are the most common cell phone cameras.
three main cameras for phones
Camera Lens
It can gather light and then project the scene to imaging medium surface. Imagine sensor: imagine sensor will change the image which is projected on surface by lens (optical signal) into the electrical signal.
Color Filter
Filtering out redundant optical wave, image sensor is able to capture more actual scenes.
Image Sensor
Image sensor will change the image which is projected on surface by lens (optical signal) into the electrical signal.
Image Sensor Details>>>
Moto Drive Chip
Motor driver chip is used to control the motor movement, thus it can realize automatic focusing.
Circuit Baseplate
The signal of imagine sensor will be spread to rear end by circuit baseplate.
Pixel Types
The more pixels on the image sensor, the more details a picture can have, we want sharp pictures, so we need lots of pixels. Megapixels: one megapixel= 1,000,000 pixels. There are many different pixel smart phone cameras on the market: 0.3M(megapixel), 1.0M, 2.0M, 5M, 8M, 13M, 16M, etc.
Some phones include a dedicated small, bright white LED that functions as a flashlight. In some camera phones with this feature, the LED light also does double-duty as a camera flash. However, not all camera phones with a flash allow flashlight (non- camera- related) use, and not all camera phones with a flashlight include camera flash capability. If this " flashlight" feature is indicated for a phone on this site, that means the LED flashlight can be used independently of the camera functions.
A type of camera lens that can adjust the distance that is in focus (focal length). Auto- focus usually provide better photo quality than fixed-focus, since auto-focus lenses can be larger and allow more light to reach the camera sensor. The downside of auto-focus is usually a delay when taking a photo (shutter lag). Most auto-focus lenses, auto-focus mechanically change the distance between two lenses to do this using a small motor or ultrasonic actuator (VCM). Newer technologies use lenses that can change shape, providing the same functionally in a smaller package.
VCM (voice coil motor)
VCM is the incumbent technology used in a miniature camera to move a lens module and alter focus. This creates a magnetic field that is repulsive with respect to the permanent magnets, causing the lens holder to move vertically away from the image sensor. The restoring force is provided by springs. VCM application: cell phone Auto focus, iris and exposure controls.
    The lens focuses light onto the sensor so the image looks crisp and clear. While it's possible to use a camera without a lens, the resulting picture will be just a blur of colors as Photos from all angles hit the sensor. Basically, you need a lens so the light from the large scene in front of the camera can be reduced and focused down to fit the small size of the sensor.
The lens is a collection of multiple plastic or glass elements, with glass usually providing a higher quality, sharper result. Each element has a specific function in focusing the light onto the sensor, whether that's generally shaping the light to fit the size of the sensor, correcting issues, or providing the final focus point. In a camera with auto focus, the final lens element (or collection of a few elements) will move closer to or further away from the sensor, thanks to the assistance of a motor (VCM). This allows different areas of the image to appear in focus, and is one of the key aspects of a practical camera system.
    Camera is one of the most phone components, so there are many cell phone camera manufacturers, including chipset manufacturer and lens supplier.
phone camera manufactrers
Camera Chipset Manufacturer>>>
phone camera manufactrers
Camera Lens Manufacturer>>>